|Flavour profiling of milk using high-capacity sorptive extraction and TD–GC×GC–TOF MS
|Dr Laura McGregor
|Mr Aaron Parker
Dr Nick Bukowski
Dr Gareth Roberts
Dr Lara Kelly Kelly
Abstract Information :
Milk, as a liquid product produced on a vast scale, is highly susceptible to contamination - from chemicals used in agriculture, from animal feed, or from the transport, processing and packaging processes. Reliable analysis of the volatile components of milk is therefore valuable to ensure high quality.
Traditionally, solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) has been used for flavour profiling. It is a fast and simple technique, but can be limited in terms of sample capacity, reproducibility and sensitivity.
Here we utilise high-capacity sorptive extraction for immersive sampling of milk. The high-capacity PDMS phase results in higher sample loadings than SPME methods, and combined with pre-concentration by thermal desorption (TD) offers greater sensitivity across a wider analyte range.
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF MS) is ideal for the analysis of such complex aroma samples, because the enhanced separation capacity allows analysts to screen the entire composition in a single analysis, with confident identification of compounds that would ordinarily co-elute.
This study investigates the application of flow-modulated GCxGC-TOF MS (using reverse-fill/flush dynamics) to ensure that even the most volatile components could be reported from a range of milk samples.