|09:45 - 10:00||Environmental Protection Legislation in the Post - Brexit Era||Lord Whitty||Environmental Protection UK||United Kingdom|
|10:00 - 10:25||Compliance requirements of European directives||David Graham||Uniper||United Kingdom|
|10:25 - 10:50||Issues with Monitoring SO2 Emissions||Marc Coleman||NPL||United Kingdom|
|10:50 - 11:15||Acid gases: HF and HCl - what impact will new EN standards for these gases have?||Kristian Hentelä||Gasmet Europe||Finland|
|Coffee Break (11:15 - 11:45)|
|11:45 - 12:10||Ammonia Slip Monitoring for NOx Control||Dr Barbara Marshik||Servomex||United States|
|12:10 - 12:35||Calibration and measuremnet of particulate at low concentrations||Paul Firth||Tarmac||United Kingdom|
|Lunch Break (12:35 - 13:45)|
|13:45 - 14:10||Dekati eFilter application to indoor, outdoor and stack emission measurements||Erkki Lamminen||Dekati||Finland|
|14:10 - 14:35||HG measurement in the U.S. in the wake of EPA Mats & PC Mact and the new European Standards||Shawn Wood & Andy Curtis||Ohio Lumex & AS Tech||United States|
|14:35 - 15:00||Enabling accurate mercury measurement for increasingly stringent emissions controls||Mike Hayes||Linde Group||United States|
|15:00 - 15:25||A Fresh Approach to the Control and Monitoring of Emissions of Sulphur and Mercury||Heather Whittenbury||Johnson Matthey||United Kingdom|
Regulatory update on the Industrial Emissions Directive, including the Best Available Techniques Reference document (BREF) for Large Combustion Plant, and also the requirements of the Medium Combustion Plant Directive.
Increasingly stringent legislation in the European Union has driven down SO2 emissions on many processes from the 100's mg.m-3 to the 10's mg.m-3, or in some cases even lower. Consequently, the measurement challenge to accredited providers of compliance measurements and EN 14181 QAL2 calibrations has become increasingly difficult, and meeting legislative uncertainty requirements far from a trivial matter. We take stock of current capability for measuring this important pollutant and present some recent results to feed into the growing debate regarding community capability to enforce existing emission limits, and the feasibility of even further decreases in such limits in the future.
Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Fluoride are among the most important pollutants monitored from waste incineration plants, cement kilns and power plants co-incinerating waste. Due to the reactive nature of these gases and their low Emission Limit Value (ELV), measuring these gases with the required low level of uncertainty has been a challenge. New standards for instrumental methods of HCl measurement and manual determination of HF are due to be published by CEN TC264/WG3 in the near future. This talk gives an overview of the current status of test methods and currently available instrumental measurement techniques.
Burning coal and other fossil fuels is widely used for generating electricity or thermal heat, but because of the combustion process, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are released into the atmosphere.
NOx and dust are the leading cause of human respiratory issues and government agencies worldwide are releasing stronger regulatory measures designed to reduce air pollution. In countries like the United States, offer NOx trading credits for excess reduction, making it more valuable than even fuel savings to a plant owner. Even if NOx credits are not available, prolonging the lifetime of the NOx reduction equipment also makes economic sense as it greatly reduces operating costs.
The two main NOx control strategies are Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), both based upon the use of ammonia (NH3) or urea to participate in the suppression of NOx formation. SCR and SNCR both rely on accurate NH3 or urea dosing to reduce NOx formation.
NH3 overdosing (called NH3 slip) causes the formation of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) precipitation - a white powder that forms when sulfur trioxide (SO3) is present (especially when coal is burned). The ABS deposits on and eventually plugs the NOx reduction catalyst, but it can also cause fouling or corrosion of boilers or, for those power plants that sell their fly ash to the cement industry, it results in sub-standard product which is no longer fit for use.Traditional NH3 slip process monitoring methods have in the past used extractive sampling techniques with an infrared (IR) based analyzer. A sample of the gas must be transported to the analyzer which results in a delay of up to 30 seconds in the reported NH3 value which makes this an unreliable process control trigger.
A carefully controlled NH3 slip of < 2ppm is needed to optimize the process and without a direct gas measurement it will be difficult as many parameters influence the process including the inlet NOx concentration, fuel composition and catalyst performance. Rapid and accurate monitoring of the NH3 slip saves millions by providing a feedback process loop that reduces NOx and ABS formation.
Calibration and measurements of particulte at concentration below 5m/m3 offer signicant challenges not only to process operators and test houses but also regulators. The STA has been working with industry to highlight the areas of concern and possible solutions thes will be discussed during the presnetation.
Gravimetric PM mass is a widely used method for determining particulate concentration. Different variations of the gravimetric principle are used as references in standards and legislation. While generally accepted as an accurate method, gravimetric measurement suffers from the lack of real-time data.
Dekati® eFilter™ is a new instrument which combines gravimetric PM measurement with real-time diffusion charging and current measurement. Knowledge of PM accumulation on the filter can be used for a variety of purposes from temporal concentration information to data verification. In this work we examine the eFilter™ measurement principle benefits and drawbacks. In addition, we present setups for indoor/outdoor and combustion source measurements and new data from recent studies along with comparisons to other instrumentation.
The EPA Issued the Mats rule ( Mercury Air Toxic Standard ) February 16, 2012 for all the coal & oil fired power plants in the USA and then the EPA issued the Portland Cement Mact on Feb 12, 2013 for the cement kilns operating in the US as well. When these rules were issued the US had almost 1,350 coal & oil fired units operating and a 100+ cement kilns running as well.
So the plants had to make a choice as to which technology they were going to adapt for mercury monitoring compliance under these rules either
1) Sorbent Trap Sampling or
2) HG Continuous Emissions Monitoring.
This presentation provides a brief comparison of both technologies and then an overview of implementation of sorbent trap sampling systems at both power & cement plants and a survey of sampling approaches & sorbent trap configurations used for long term sampling for mercury compliance. This presentation will address several issues related to achieving passing QA/QC in a variety of challenging sources for example sampling in high temperatures at cement kilns, high levels of SO2, high particulate or extremely wet sources. Currently the in the US Ohio Lumex has about 450+ coal fired units and cement plants using our sorbent traps for compliance including many LEE sources ( Low Emitting Electrical generating unit ). This presentation is an overview of our experiences working with these plants to help them achieve mercury compliance under these new EPA regulations and a compilation of recommendations we have developed over the last 12+ years helping these facilities with installs, training and ongoing data review for continued mercury compliance. In addition we will present a brief overview of our mercury control optimization testing that we have performed at many plants here in the U.S.
In Europe CEN are developing a new standard for the measurement of mercury and this will be compared with how mintoring is carried out in USA.
Mercury has been elevated to the status of a pollutant of global concern owing to some of its unique toxic properties which pose environmental and health risks. A chemical element, mercury is found both naturally and as an introduced contaminant in the environment, mainly from high-temperature industrial processes such as alkali and metal processing, incineration of coal and oil in electric power stations, foundries, waste combustion and oil and gas processing.
Mercury rapidly moved up the pollution control agenda in the European Union (EU), the USA and Asia prior to the legally binding UNEP global treaty on mercury, the Minamata Convention, adopted in 2013 and signed by 128 countries. The objective of the Minamata Convention is to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds. In late 2011, the US EPA finalised the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), the first national Clean Air standards to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic air pollutants from new and existing coal and oil-fired power plants. In the EU, the Community Strategy concerning mercury was adopted in 2005 and reviewed in 2010. It focuses on mercury emissions to air, the banning of mercury exportation (including certain mercury compounds) and enforcing restrictions on products containing mercury and industrial processes using mercury. In regard to industrial emissions of mercury, the EU Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) addresses the issue via the Reference documents on the Best Available Techniques (BREF). The European Parliament has also recently issued the Medium Combustion Plants Directive (MCPD) from 2018 for new plants and from 2025 for existing installations. The MCPD does not currently include mercury within the controlled pollutants but there is an expectation that mercury may indeed be included in the scope of MCPD in a future update.
As legislation and action plans grow in number and stringency, the importance of monitoring and quantifying emission pollutants in an accurate and transparent manner are becoming priorities. Typical analytical instruments in this application include Atomic Absorption Spectrometers (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) mass spectrometers.
The Linde Group was the first company to offer to the market gaseous mercury calibration standards for the monitoring and detection of emissions. A comparison is made between these calibration gas standards and other methods of calibrating analytical instruments.
At present too much emphasis for emission control from vehicles and furnaces is placed on monitoring and cleaning the exhaust gases. This means dealing with large volumes of hot gases at low pressures. This may be unavoidable in the case of coal but the adoption of gaseous and liquid fuels allows a different approach. Gases and low boiling hydrocarbon liquids contain relatively simple sulphur compounds and may also contain mercury. This allows a fresh approach for emission control. Gases are likely to be delivered at a high pressure which reduces the actual volume to be handled. These fuels can be treated with fixed bed absorbents at ambient temperature to remove H2S and mercury and the absorption profile can be easily measured. This approach has the added advantage that the spent absorbent can be collected and sent for recycling. Examples are given of the use of this technology for monitoring and emission control.