CEM 2020

CEM 2018 - Abstract

Abstract Title: Continuous monitoring of biogenic CO2 emissions - A tool for the determination of the portion of green energy
Abstract Type: Seminar
Session Choice: Innovative Measurement Technology
Presenter Name: Mr Juergen Reinmann
Company/Organisation: Environnement S.A Deutschland
Country: Germany

Abstract Information :

Accurate measurement of emissions is a growing concern. Specific the determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is very important. One public interest hereby is the reduction of fossil CO2 emissions and the maximization of the production of so called "green energy". When electricity or heat is produced from a mixed fuel stream it is hard to determine what's 'green' and what's not.

Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processed from municipal solid waste (MSW) and/or hazardous waste (HW) is usually an unknown mixture of biogenic and fossil organic matter. Due to European regulations (e.g. the Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources 2001/77/EC) producers and operators of RDF plants are interested in reliable and cost-effective methods for the determination of the biogenic and fossil organic material, energy, and carbon content of the RDF.

There exists common methods for the determination of the biogenic content of the fuel by the investigation of a few grams of the fuel. These methods are time intensive and due to the character of random samples (analysis of a few grams of tons of material) it includes a higher uncertainty due to their systematic limitations.

However, with continuous sampling of a part of the flue gas on a CO2 adsorber material, it is possible to monitor and to determine the biogenic CO2 portion of the emitted flue gas in an easy and accurate way.

Functional Principle
Mixed fuel as used in e.g. RDF or MWI plants consists of a mixture of biogenic and fossil carbon. The biogenic carbon is included in fuel material which grew recently as e.g. wood, food, plants, paper etc., and the included CO2 is part of a natural cycle. The fossil carbon is included in fuel material, which grew millions of years before as e.g. coal, oil and plastic. These different materials can be identified by a marker of the carbon atoms, as fossil material consists of 12C and biogenic material of 14C. When the fuel is burned the different carbon is emitted with the CO2 to the atmosphere. Biogenic CO2 is thereby defined as CO2 neutral, as the CO2 which is released due to the burning process, was bounded by the material only a short time before. Only the fossil CO2 part of the emission is defined a GHG source. By a determination of the 14C fraction of the flue gas it is possible to determine the biogenic part of the fuel.

For the determination of the biogenic fraction, the AMESA B system extracts a part of the flue gas under volume-proportional conditions and the CO2 is sampled in an adsorber cartridge filled with Ascarite or soda lime. After the sampling period of several hours up to one month, the cartridge is sent to a carbon dating laboratory to apply the carbon-14 method and determine the proportion of the 14C and 12C isotopes in the CO2. With the analysis result and the information of the 14C fraction, it is possible to calculate the emitted fraction of biogenic and fossil CO2 or the amount of green energy.

The used principle is a standardized method and complies EN ISO 13833 and EN 15440.

This paper will describe in detail the system which is based on the knowledge and experiences the well-known systems AMESA D for continuous dioxin sampling and AMESA M for continuous mercury sampling. Experiences of more than 20 years of continuous sampling were implemented in this system to assure reliable measurement results.

It will be shown results of applications in Waste to Energy Plants and Refused Derived Fuel Plants.