CEM - Abstract

Abstract Title: Characterization of brominated dioxins and furans emissions from hazardous waste incinerators
Presenter Name: Mr Serge COLLET
Co-authors:Mrs Isaline FRABOULET
Mrs Anne-Sophie CLINCKE
Company/Organisation: French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (Ineris)
Country: France

Abstract Information :

Unlike chlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD-DF) whose atmospheric emissions from stationary sources to air are regulated and documented, emissions of brominated dioxins from industrial sources remain poorly understood. The presence of brominated organic compounds in end-of-life products and more specifically brominated flame retardants (BFRs) could cause emissions of brominated dioxins and furans in certain thermal waste disposal units. Ineris, as part of its support missions to the Ministry of Ecological Transition, has carried out a study including measurements of brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD-DF) emissions from several hazardous waste incinerators and chemical sites. Thus, 22 incineration lines spread over 13 industrial sites located in France were selected. For each line, two one-month measurement campaigns were conducted during the 2nd half of 2021 as part of the usual air emissions self-monitoring checks. Polychlorinated biphenyls dioxin-like (PCBs DL) were also measured and the results of analyses of chlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD-DF) usually carried out by operators were collected. The various analyses carried out show that: • Raw values of PBDD-DF are generally less than 0.01 ng/m03 dry at 11% O2 except for 2 lines of the same site, • In toxic equivalent, all values determined are low (below 0.006 ng I.TEQ/m03 dry at 11% O2) and therefore below 10% of the emission limit value (ELV) for chlorinated dioxins (0.1 .ng I.TEQ/m03 dry at 11% O2), • The PBDD-DF toxic equivalent average content represents 39% of the corresponding PCDD-DF content. If removing a line with atypical results (PBDD-DF levels between 5 and 10 times those of PCDD-DF), the PBDD-DF average content represents 5% of the corresponding PCDD-DF content. • Concerning PCBs DL, in toxic equivalent, the average content represents 18% of the corresponding PCDD-DF content (range of values between 0 and 94%), excluding 2 lines of 2 sites with very high results: line 3 of site2 (4 073 and 1 404%) and line1 of site8 (558 and 468%). PCBs DL therefore represent a significant proportion of the overall toxic equivalent. The influence of the type of flue gas treatment installed (dry or wet) was observed on the distribution of the results on the PBDD-DF measurements. Overall, raw concentrations and concentrations expressed as I.TEQ contents are higher for dry treatment types than for wet treatment types. At the sites studied, which account for a significant proportion of all sites in France, the PBDD-DF toxic equivalent levels are very low: all below 0.005 ng I.TEQ/m03 dry at 11% O2. In view of these factors, systematic monitoring of PBDD-DFs does not appear to be relevant for these facilities. Given the very low PBDD-DF levels measured, no relationship was observed between PBDD-DF emissions and the characteristics of the incinerated waste.